Success in science is achieved by people, not by instruments.
P. L. Kapitsa
For the development of a researcher, teacher, or leader there exists a natural and necessary step. About 25% of MIPT graduates enter the PhD programs every year.
The first year is dedicated to fundamental education. Graduate students attend classes in philosophy, foreign language, psychology, pedagogy, economics, and law. The first step is completed with candidate examinations in philosophy and English, while other subjects are completed by regular exams or tests.
The second year is dedicated to specialized study. At this time, graduate students combine work on review of the literature on the chosen thesis topic, research work and preparation for the candidate exam in the specialty — the most difficult exam for all nine years of study at Phystech.
The third year of graduate school ends with a presentation before a specialized council by defense of the PhD dissertation.